The ultrasonic sensor works by sending out a signal and listening for a response, using the time to calculate distance. The input and output wires are both attached to the DIO ports on the RoboRIO.
Hall Effect Sensor
The Hall Effect Sensor essentially detects magnetic fields. If a magnet passes by next to the sensor, it relays a signal to the RIO via DIO.
The color sensor tells you what color is lying near the face of the sensor. Although a niche sensor, it was important to the 2020/2021 game. The color sensor connects to I2C on the RoboRIO.
NavX - Navigation
The NavX is a combination of Gyroscopes, Accelerometers and Magnetometers that allows you to track the motion of the robot. It plugs directly into the center of the RIO above the Analog and Relay ports. Do not forget to add a 3D printed case on top of the NavX once on the RIO.